Tuesday, January 28, 2020

How the US and Soviet Union Became Adversaries

How the US and Soviet Union Became Adversaries HOW THE UNITED STATES AND SOVIET UNION BECOME COLD WAR ADVERSARIES No one seems to be able to agree on an exact date of when the Cold War began. There was never an official announcement of warfare to note the start beginning of the conflict. Many say it began around the time of the Russian Revolution in 1917. Others say it began after World War II, when both powers tried to settle their differences and decide what to do with Europe. They entered World War II for different reasons: the Soviets because of Germany’s invasion and the United States because Hitler declared war after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Both were well ahead of other countries in many areas. However, after the World War their similarities ended. The differences between the nations outweighed the similarities enormously. Both countries had their own ideas as to how things should have been during the period after the war. This can be seen in the Potsdam, Tehran, and Yalta conferences. Also, they both tried to enforce their ideologies through events during the Iron Curta in and Marshall Plan. To begin with, many believe that conflicts between the Soviet Union can be traced back to the Russian Revolution of 1917, started by Vladimir Lenin. The ensuing civil war, in which Western powers unsuccessfully intervened, and the creation of Comintern, an organization dedicated to the spreading of communism, globally fuelled a climate of mistrust and fear between Russia and the rest of Europe/America. From 1918 to 1935, with the US pursuing a policy of isolationism and Stalin keeping Russia looking inward, the situation remained one of dislike rather than conflict. rom 1918 to 1935, with the US pursuing a policy of isolationism and Stalin keeping Russia looking inward, the situation remained one of dislike rather than conflict. In 1935 Stalin changed his policy: afraid of fascism, he tried to form an alliance with the democratic Western powers against Nazi Germany. This initiative failed and in 1939 Stalin signed the Nazi-Soviet pact with Hitler, which only increased anti-Soviet hos tility in the West, but delayed the onset of war between the two powers. However, while Stalin hoped Germany would get bogged down in a war with France, early Nazi conquests occurred quickly, enabling Germany to invade the Soviet Union in 1941. The Second World War and the Political Division of Europe The German invasion of Russia, which followed a successful invasion of France, united the Soviets with Western Europe and later America in an alliance against their common enemy: Adolf Hitler. This war transformed the global balance of power, weakening Europe and leaving Russia and the United States of America as global super-powers, with massive military strength; everyone else was second. However, the wartime alliance was not an easy one, and by 1943 each side was thinking about the state of Post-war Europe. Russia ‘liberated’ vast areas of Eastern Europe, into which it wanted to put its own brand of government and turn into soviet satellite states, in part to gain security from the capitalist West. Although the Allies tried to gain assurances for democratic elections from Russia during mid and post war conferences, there was ultimately nothing they could do to stop Russia from imposing its will on their conquests. In 1944 Churchill, Prime Minister of Britain, was quoted as saying â€Å"Make no mistake, all the Balkans apart from Greece are going to be Bolshevised and there’s nothing I can do to prevent it. There’s nothing I can do for Poland, either†. Meanwhile the Allies liberated large parts of Western Europe in which they recreated democratic nations. Two Superpower Blocs and Mutual Distrust World War Two finished in 1945 with Europe divided into two blocs, each occupied by the armies of, in the west America and the Allies, and in the east, Russia. America wanted a democratic Europe and was afraid of communism dominating the continent while Russia wanted the opposite, a communist Europe in which they dominated and not, as they feared, a united, capitalist Europe. Stalin believed, at first, that capitalist nations would soon fall to squabbling among themselves, a situation he could exploit, and was dismayed by the growing organisation among the West. To these differences were added fear of Soviet invasion in the West and Russian fear of the atomic bomb; fear of economic collapse in the west versus fear of economic domination by the west; a clash of ideologies (capitalism versus communism) and, on the Soviet front, the fear of a rearmed Germany hostile to Russia. In 1946 Churchill described the dividing line between East and West as an Iron Curtain. Containment, the Marshall Plan and the Economic Division of Europe America reacted to the threat of the spread of both Soviet power and communist thinking by commencing the policy of ‘containment’, outlined in a speech to Congress on March 12 1947, action aimed at stopping any further Soviet expansion and isolating the ‘empire’ which existed. The need to halt Soviet expansion seemed all the more important later that year as Hungary was taken over by a one party communist system, and later when a new communist government took over the Czech state in a coup, nations which until then Stalin had been content to leave as a middle ground between the communist and capitalist blocs. Meanwhile Western Europe was having severe economic difficulties as the nations struggled to recover from the devastating effects of the recent war. Worried that communist sympathisers were gaining influence as the economy worsened, to secure the western markets for US products and to put containment into practice, America reacted with the ‘Marsha ll Plan’ of massive economic aid. Although it was offered to both eastern and western nations, albeit with certain strings attached, Stalin made sure it was rejected in the Soviet sphere of influence, a response the US had been expecting. Between 1947 and 1952 $13 billion was given to 16 mainly western nations and, while the effects are still debated, it generally boosted the economies of member nations and helped freeze communist groups from power, for example in France, where the communists members of the coalition government were ousted. It also created an economic divide as clear as the political one between the two power blocs. Meanwhile Stalin formed COMECON, the ‘Commission for Mutual Economic Aid’, in 1949 to promote trade and economic growth among its satellites and Cominform, a union of communist parties (including those in the west) to spread communism. Containment also led to other initiatives: in 1947 the CIA spent large amounts to influence the result of Italy’s elections, helping the Christian Democrats defeat the Communist party. By 1948, with Europe was firmly divided into communist and capitalist, Russian supported and American supported, Germany became the new ‘battleground ’. Germany was divided into four parts and occupied by Britain, France, America and Russia; Berlin, situated in the Soviet zone, was also divided. In 1948 Stalin enforced a blockade of Western Berlin aimed at bluffing the Allies into renegotiating the division of Germany in his favour, rather than them declaring war over the cut off zones. However, Stalin had miscalculated the ability of airpower, and the Allies responded with the ‘Berlin Airlift’: for eleven months supplies were flown into Berlin. This was in turn a bluff, for the Allied planes had to fly over Russian airspace and the Allies gambled that Stalin wouldn’t shoot them down and risk war. He didn’t and the blockade was ended in May 1949 when Stalin gave up. The Berlin Blockade was the first time the previous diplomatic and political divisions in Europe had become an open battle of wills, the former allies now certain enemies. More on the Berlin Blockade NATO, the Warsaw Pact and the renewed Military Division of Europe In April 1949, with the Berlin Blockade in full effect and the threat of conflict with Russia looming, the Western powers signed the NATO treaty in Washington, creating a military alliance: the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The emphasis was firmly on defence from Soviet activity. That same year Russia detonated its first atomic weapon, negating the America advantage and reducing the chance of the powers engaging in a ‘regular’ war because of fears over the consequences of nuclear conflict. There were debates over the next few years among NATO powers over whether to rearm West Germany and in 1955 it became a full member of NATO. A week later eastern nations signed the Warsaw Pact, creating a military alliance under a Soviet commander. A Cold War By 1949 two sides had formed, power blocs which were deeply opposed to each other, each believing the other threatened them and everything they stood for (and in many ways they did). Although there was no traditional warfare, there was a nuclear standoff and attitudes and ideology hardened over the next decades, the gap between them growing more entrenched. This led to the ‘Red Scare’ in the United States and yet more crushing of dissent in Russia. However, by this time the Cold War had also spread beyond the boundaries of Europe, becoming truly global as China became communist and America intervened in Korea and Vietnam. Nuclear weapons also grew more power with the creation, in 1952 by the US and in 1953 by the USSR, of thermonuclear weapons which were vastly more destructive than those dropped during the Second World War. This led to the development of ‘Mutually Assured Destruction’, whereby neither the US nor USSR would ‘hot’ war with each o ther because the resulting conflict would destroy much of the world.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Power of Attorney :: essays research papers

POWER OF ATTORNEY   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Notice: The powers granted by this document are broad and sweeping. They are not defined in te Colorado Statutes, Sections 15-1-101 to 15-1-1202, inclusive, of the General Statutes, which expressly permits the use of any other or different form of power of attorney desired by the parties concerned.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Know All Men By These Presents, which are intended to constitute an IRREVOCABLE GENERAL POWER OF ATTORNEY pursuant to Colorado Statutes:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  That I_________________ do hereby appoint Piotr Bieniek my attorney- in-fact TO ACT:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First: In my name, place, and stead in any way which I myself could do, if I were personally present, which respect to the following matters as each of them is defined in the Colorado Statutes to the extent that I am permitted by law to act through an agent:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Only Selection I or Selection II should be completed NOT BOTH If both Selections are completed, this Power of Attorney IS NOT VALID Selection I   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  REQUIRED ARE BOTH THE SIGNATURE AND THE INITIALS   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  OF THE PRINCIPAL WITHIN THIS SELECTION I. BOTH   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  REQUIREMENTS CONSTITUTE A FULL GENERAL POWER OF   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ATTORNEY WITHOUT ANY LIMITATION OR RESTRICTION.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  X ( )   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   SCRIBE ET SCRIBE DEBERE EQUIPARANTUR IN JURE Selection II   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Strike out and initial in the opposite box any one or more of the subdivisions as to which the principal does NOT desire to give the agent authority. Such elimination of any one or more of subdivision (A) to (K), inclusive, shall automatically constitute an elimination also of subdivision (L).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To strike out any subdivision the principal must draw a line through the text of that subdivision AND write his initials in the opposite box. (A)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  real estate transactions; ( ) (B)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  chattel and goods transactions; ( ) (C)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  bond, share, and commodity transactions; ( ) (D)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  banking transactions; ( ) (E)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  business operating transactions; ( ) (F)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  insurance transactions; ( ) (G)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  estate transactions; ( ) (H)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  claims and litigation; ( ) (I)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  personal relationships and affairs; ( ) (J)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  benefits from military service; ( ) (K)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  records, reports, and statements; ( ) (L)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  all other matters; ( ) (hand written by the principal, in the principal’s own handwriting) ( )   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Second: With full and unqualified authority to delegate any or all of the foregoing powers to any person or persons whom my attorney-in-fact shall select.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Third: Hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney(s) or substitute(s) do cause to be done.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Fourth: To induce any third party to act hereunder, I hereby agree that any third party receiving a duly executed copy or facsimile of this instrument may act hereunder, and that

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Middle Ages & Renaissance Study Guide

Middle Ages Dates: 500-1450 1. What was going historically during this era? What was life like? It was a chaotic period of social and political unrest. Religious and political differences between and within regions led to nearly constant warfare. The life of all the classes was dominated by the feudal system – feudalism. 2. Who or what had the power? The church 3. Who were learned or literate? Holy men or people of important status such as kings, queens, and knights most other people were illiterate 4. Who were allowed to sing in church? Only men were allowed to sing in church 5.Most of the music that was notated during the middle ages was sacred or secular? Sacred 6. Was most medieval music vocal? Yes 7. What is Gregorian Chant? Discuss its origin, texture, melody, rhythm, text. How did it receive its name? What is its purpose? Music to which portions of the Roman Catholic service are sung by unaccompanied voices singing in unison. The melodies of Gregorian chant are commonly sung a capable and in unison by men and boys, or by women in female religious institutions such as convents. The rhythm is free and flexible.The text may be treated in a syllabic manner with one note of music corresponding to each syllable of text. 8. When chant was notated, was the rhythm notated or Just the melody? Gregorian Chant and Just the melody 9. What are church modes? Any of a system of modes used in Gregorian chants up until 1600 10. What is the Mass? Roman Catholic worship service 11. What is the Proper of the Mass? Parts of the mass change according to the seasons of the church year around Easter and others at Characteristic; they are proper or appropriate, only at certain times. 12. What is the Ordinary of the Mass?Parts of the mass celebrated at any season of the year or time of the day. 13. Who is Hildebrand of Bigger? 12th century Benedictine abbess who was a composer of sacred song and chant 14. When did composers begin to write polyphonic pieces? What was this ea rly polyphony like? 15. What is a canon? Polyphonic composition in which all the voices perform the same melody, beginning at different times 16. What is a drone? Sustained tone 17. What is an station? Persistently repeated melodic or rhythmic pattern 18. What is the liturgy? Words of the mass 19. Who is Gallinule De Mach? The century poet and musician who composed the first complete polyphonic setting of the entire Ordinary of the Mass. 20. What city became the musical center of Europe during the mid to late Middle Ages? What was the musical center of this city and who worked there? Vienna Composers came from all over Europe to train in and around Vienna, and gradually they developed and formalized the standard musical forms that were to dominate European musical culture for the next several decades. 21. Composers began to write polyphonic songs that were not always based on chant, what were hey based on instead? 22.By the 14th century a new system of music notation had evolved. It allowed a composer to specify almost any rhythmic pattern. Were beats now divided into two or three parts or both? Was syncopation used? Both and yes Renaissance Dates: 1450-1600 1. What was going historically during this era? What was life like? 2. What is humanism? Period characterized by a new optimism, that began in 14th century Italy and spread throughout western Europe during the Renaissance 3. What effect did the printing press have on music? It enabled books to be printed quickly and inexpensively, making them available to commoners 4.Was every educated person expected to be trained in music? Yes 5. Where did musical activity gradually shift to? From the church to the court 6. Were composers content to remain unknown? No not anymore 7. Does vocal music continue to be more important than instrumental music? Yes 9. What is word painting? Musical illustrations of verbal concepts 10. What is the primary texture of most renaissance music? Polyphonic 11. How many different parts are typically found in a renaissance piece? How does this compare to the music in the Middle Ages?Typical pieces have four, five, or six parts, but medieval music had two and three parts. 12. What is a capable? Unaccompanied group singing 13. What was the rhythm like in renaissance music? Rhythm is more a gentle flow than a sharply defined beat. 14. What was the melody like in renaissance music? The melody usually moves along a scale with few large leaps. 15. What were to the two main types of sacred music? Define each of them? Motet is a polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the mass. Mass is a polyphonic choral composition made up of five sections: Keri, Gloria,Credo, Sanctum, and Gangs Die. 16. Who was Joaquin Deeper? What type of music did he compose? Netherlands composer of the Renaissance who composed Western Music 17. Who was Giovanni Periling dad Palestinian? Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best- known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. 18. What was the counter-reformation and the Council of Trend? The time when the Church launched its counter-attack to reformation 19. List the three complaints with the sacred music of the day? 20. What is a Lutheran chorale?A four-part choral piece by theologies and writer Martin Luther, who also composed, used in Lutheran church services. 21. What is a psalm tune? Tuneful settings of the 150 psalms in versions suitable for congregational singing 20. What is a madrigal? Secular song introduced in Italy that became popular in England as well. Polyphonic in texture and expressive in mood, madrigals are written in the vernacular. 21. Who was Thomas Wilkes? An organist and church composer 22. How were instruments categorized in the Renaissance? Low or soft 23. Explain how dances are performed together?During the Renaissance period, there was a distinction between country dances and court dances. Court dances required the dance rs to be trained and were often for display and entertainment, whereas country dances could be attempted by anyone. At Court, the formal entertainment would often be followed by many hours of country dances which all present could Join in. Dances described as country dances such as Charlatans or Carthaginian remained popular over a long period – over two centuries in the case of this dance. A Renaissance dance can be likened to a ball.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Nokias Human Resource Management - 969 Words

Nokia: Human Resource Management (HR) – Personnel management To maintain a healthy, successful and efficient environment Nokia collaborates with its employees under the main goal to create an environment for all its employees where they can fulfill their potential. Motivation, encouragement and maintaining employees satisfaction and well-being at work is vital for Nokia to perform at its best. As a goods manufacturer Nokia collaborates with its employees within formal and informal networks to allow ideas to be exchanged easily. To encourage their employees, Nokia has adapted various HR techniques including pay system, training and developing employees, and fringe benefits. Rewards The total compensation of employees aims to not only†¦show more content†¦Nokia offers services, programs and guidelines to support employees’ possibilities to maintain work-life balance according to their changing needs and life situations. These work-life balance solutions may alter by country according to local needs, legislation, employment market situation and common practices. One service that Nokia provides its employees is teleworking and mobile working. This innovative service solution aims to have positive effects on quality of life, job satisfaction and job performance. Depending on the situation and needs, flexible working solutions can provide alternative modes of working such as teleworking at home or at other locations. Also flexible working hours is part of the flexible working solutions. Depending on the local market conditions, employees may take advantage of flexi time including flexible working hours and part-time working. Nokia also provides its employees with health care services. Nokia aims to maintain and improve the working environment and well-being of its employees. In order to ensure the physical well-being of employees Nokia offers amongst others medical check-ups, counseling and insurance programs to the employees. Recreational activities is also part of Nokia’s services to provide a work-life balance. Volunteering is one of these services which helps create a balance between personal convictions and professional lives. Nokia’s globalShow MoreRelatedVision And Mission Statement : Nokia s Vision9696 Words   |  39 PagesTask 3 Vision and Mission It is important to understand the difference between vision and mission statement in order to understand whether Nokia’s statements are aligned to the need of its customers. Vision is a projection of what a company intends and what they might achieve in future (Constantin Balanescu, 2008). A company is considered as having a good vision if the vision is powerful, purposeful, emotional, concrete, self-determining and multi-faced (Bratianu, 2007). 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