Thursday, August 27, 2020

Biodiversity Outline Free Essays

I. Presentation a. In the course of recent decades, solid logical proof has risen demonstrating that loss of the world’s organic assorted variety lessens the profitability and supportability of characteristic biological systems and diminishes their capacity to give society products and enterprises like food, wood, grub, rich soils, and assurance from nuisances and malady. We will compose a custom exposition test on Biodiversity Outline or then again any comparative subject just for you Request Now II. Body a. [Amphibians] No gathering of creatures has a higher pace of risk than creatures of land and water. Researchers gauge that a third or a greater amount of all the about 6,300 known types of creatures of land and water are in danger of termination I. The current land and water proficient elimination rate may run from 25,039 to multiple times the foundation eradication rate ii. Frogs, amphibians, and lizards are vanishing a result of living space misfortune, water and air contamination, environmental change and ailment. iii. On account of their affectability to natural changes, disappearing creatures of land and water ought to be seen as the canary in the worldwide coal mineshaft, flagging unobtrusive yet extreme environment changes that could at last case numerous different species, including people. b. [Birds] Birds happen in about each living space on the planet and are frequently the most noticeable and natural untamed life to individuals over the globe. In that capacity, they give a significant bellwether to following changes to the biosphere. Declining flying creature populaces across most to all natural surroundings affirm that significant changes are happening on our planet in light of human exercises. I. A 2009 report on the condition of winged creatures in the United States found that 251 (31 percent) of the 800 species in the nation are of preservation concern. ii. All around, BirdLife International gauges that 12 percent of known 9,865 winged animal species are currently viewed as compromised, with 192 species, or 2 percent, confronting a â€Å"extremely high risk† of annihilation in the wild †two a bigger number of animal types than in 2008. ii. Natural surroundings misfortune and debasement have caused the majority of the fledgling decreases, yet the effects of obtrusive species and catch by authorities assume a major job, as well. c. [Fish]Increasing interest for water, the damming of streams all through the wo rld, the dumping and gathering of different toxins, and obtrusive species make amphibian environments the absolute generally compromised on the planet; along these lines, it’s not amazing that there are many fish species that are jeopardized in both freshwater and marine living spaces. I. The American Fisheries Society distinguished 700 types of freshwater or anadromous fish in North America as being endangered, adding up to 39 percent of all such fish on the landmass ii. In North American marine waters, in any event 82 fish species are endangered. Over the globe, 1,851 types of fish †21 percent of all fish species assessed †were considered in danger of eradication by the IUCN in 2010, including in excess of 33% of sharks and beams. d. [Invertebrates (profundity into coral reefs)] Invertebrates, from butterflies to mollusks to night crawlers to corals, are limitlessly various †and however nobody knows exactly what number of invertebrate species exist, they’re assessed to represent around 97 percent of the absolute types of creatures on Earth. Of the 1. 3 million known invertebrate species, the IUCN has assessed around 9,526 species, with around 30 percent of the species assessed in danger of elimination. I. Freshwater spineless creatures are seriously undermined by water contamination, groundwater withdrawal, and water ventures, while countless spineless creatures of remarkable logical criticalness have gotten either imperiled or wiped out because of deforestation, particularly in view of the quick decimation of tropical rainforests. ii. In the sea, reef-building corals are declining at a disturbing rate: 2008’s first-since forever extensive worldwide appraisal of these creatures uncovered that 33% of reef-building corals are compromised. III. Decision a. While much worry over eradication centers around internationally lost species, the greater part of biodiversity’s benefits occur at a neighborhood level, and preserving nearby populaces is the best way to guarantee hereditary decent variety basic for a species’ long haul endurance. Not all things are clear with regards to biodiversity misfortune, yet what unmistakably a huge number of animal varieties are in danger of vanishing perpetually in the coming decades. Step by step instructions to refer to Biodiversity Outline, Essay models

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Cross Border Negotiations Essay Example For Students

Cross Border Negotiations Essay Dennis KellyMGT 425Special Project:Getting Your Yens WorthRobert T. MoranFebruary 1, 1999Cross outskirt arrangements are frequently convoluted undertakings, particularly when the exchanges are occurring between a Western culture like that of the U.S. what's more, one of the East like that of Japan. Social and philosophical contrasts alongside contrasts in strategies, viewpoints and language would all be able to muddle a very frequently troublesome procedure. It was noted by the writer of this perusing the Japanese mediator will think about the lead and activities of one American as illustrative all things considered. This is because of the unimaginably homogenous culture of Japan. Statistics information demonstrates that over 99% of the number of inhabitants in Japan are in truth Japanese, with most of the rest of Korean drop, and that over 80% of the Japanese individuals practice one of two religions. With such a steady populace, it tends to be contended that there is little assorted variety to be found in the Japanese lifestyle. Japanese are probably going to expect that different societies are comparative in nature to their own and accordingly feel that one individual, or little gathering of people, would be a reasonable and precise portrayal of their particular culture on the loose. This raises issues in dealings on the grounds that as a rule Japanese will anticipate one kind of individual and not be set up for somebody who is specia l, or a gathering that is differing. Maybe the most ideal approach to help a Japanese arbitrator when s/he is given this issue is to evade conduct limits. Make an endeavor to carry on in a sensible and preservationist way and attempt to abstain from making a confused domain. Permit the Japanese to talk with one essential arbitrator and attempt to lead ones self in a reliable way. While arranging, Japanese take a stab at request and concordance while Americans go for the success. The Japanese endeavor to make a relationship that will persevere through in order to guarantee future business relations, they take a gander at the total picture and in light of the drawn out implications. It is imperative to make sure to stay away from face to face showdowns during exchanges, as this methodology is the perfect inverse to Japanese way of thinking and can bring about affront or injury to the Japanese just as disappointment in the arrangements. Know about varying points of view and business hypothesis and consider how they may impact Japanese arbitrators. The Japanese will consider all choices and take the time required to guarantee a total examination of each part of proposed plan. Americans are famous for their craving to explain an issue and move as quickly as could be expected under the circumstances. Persistence should be practiced in this circumstance and, if fundamental, the American moderator needs to utilize goals that have just been made as an extension to making more understandings. It is additionally essential to acknowledge how language and interpretation boundaries influence dealings. It is critical to realize what is being stated, yet in addition what is being deciphered and comprehended. Contingent upon the locale a Japanese arbitrator starts from may adjust the significance of an announcement or an activity and the American mediator must know about this chance and guarantee that everybody is on the same wavelength. Business

Friday, August 21, 2020

How to Write the Colgate University Supplement 2019-2020 TKG

How to Write the Colgate University Supplement 2019-2020 Colgate University is a private liberal arts college in Hamilton, NY. Their small size, just under 3,000 undergraduate students, can be deceptive. They offer 56 majors, providing students with a wide breadth of academic options. An institutional commitment to sustainability guides all of their programs. In April 2019, Colgate became the first school of higher education in New York to reach carbon neutrality. They also have a community garden, an on-campus produce stand, and they prioritize locally-sourced food in the dining room. Looking off-campus, many students are involved in the Colgate Hunger Outreach Program, which works to address hunger locally. Last year, their acceptance rate is 22.6%. Colgate has two prompts, each with a limit of 250 words. At Colgate, we believe that a diverse community is a strong community. Reflect on an experience that demonstrates your commitment to inclusion and diversity.This is an interesting question because it can trip people up and cause them to fall into bad habits or less-than-awesome language if they aren’t careful. If you are thorough and thoughtful, it may be one of your favorite supplements! In answering it, you will need to talk about an experience, not a feather in your hat. This is to say that you absolutely should not write about how you are in a diversity club or that you have friends of different races or ethnicities. Instead, this supplement offers an opportunity to explore a specific way that inclusiveness and diversity have played out in your life. People who live in homogenous areas sometimes experience an impulse to talk about a trip abroad to a place that was culturally different from their hometown to answer this question. If you are part of this group, please resist this impulse. If you give in to it, your supplement can quickly come to sound like you are writing about a poverty safari. Here, smaller stories are undoubtedly better. An example of the set-up for a small story happened to one of our writ ers recently. She was at the post office filling out an address label for a package and heard a couple puzzling over a custom’s form. They were speaking in Spanish, and the form was in English. They had asked a post office employee for help, but she didn’t speak Spanish so couldn’t explain. After considering whether it would be seen as rude or if she would sound silly, our writer leaned over and politely offered, in Spanish, to help them with the form. This is a good example because, from this point, writing this story for this supplement could go really well, or it could blow up in your face. It all depends on what you do next. The wrong decision would be to use this set-up as a way to write about how you helped them and how that makes you a great person. The more advisable route would be to reflect on how, despite regions being mostly, or even majority, Spanish-speaking, we don’t accommodate for Spanish-speakers in our public systems, like the US Postal Service. This build s visible and experiential barriers that undermine the autonomy of Spanish-speakers. Helping someone out by speaking second-grade-level Spanish is the right thing to do even if you are self-conscious about it at the moment. With over 500 liberal arts and sciences colleges in the United States, what inspired you to apply to Colgate?The keyword in this supplement is “inspired.” Including the word “inspired” immediately differentiates this supplement from most of the other “Why us?” essays that we deal with every college season. Before starting, write down everything that you like about the school. Next, cross out everything that is about how the school looks, that references people being nice, or that is vague. None of those types of things tell application readers anything about you. Now that you’ve crossed out most of the list find something, or add something, that is focused on a particular program â€" preferably an academic one as it is a college. The program you pic k should be part of or related to your desired major.  Once you’ve picked the program, it’s time to write about it. You should include what you would like to major in and how it relates to the program. You should also mention a professor that you would like to work with who is part of the program, and one or two classes you would like to take.Critically, be sure to link the program you are focusing on to the type of stuff that you are doing now. In fact, you should start your supplement by setting the scene for why the program is so inspiring to you. Throughout the supplement, aim to tell a cohesive story that illuminates why the program you chose to highlight is particularly inspiring to you.  If you have a vision of where you want to be (say, a college that prioritizes sustainability), but aren’t sure what schools are a match, send us a message. We specialize in crafting college lists that resonate with student’s goals and dreams.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Positive And Negative Effects Of Peer Pressure

Peer pressure is a social issue that has been around in the past and will last in the future. It is one thing that all teenagers have in common. It is highly influential with positive and negative effects. Some teenagers are more likely to give in whereas others are more likely to stand their ground. The feeling of belonging and social acceptance is considered very important, while social rejection and exclusions are very much feared. Peer pressure is defined as a feeling of pressure to engage in something that other people in one’s friend group are doing, whether it’s taking a certain action, embracing certain values, or conforming to be respected and accepted. It can turn a teenager with the best grades and highest values act in ways†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Come on! It’s going to be fun† is a sentence that often indicates a group pressuring someone into doing something. Teenagers do not want to feel left out at parties or social gatherings that revolve around drinking. The feeling of wanting to belong to the group and being accepted is stronger than being smart and rejecting the alcohol or drugs. Teenagers do not want to feel left out at parties or social gatherings that revolve around drinking. It is also considered a party activity to play drinking games like beer pong or flip cup. Therefore, they let themselves being peer pressured into drinking alcohol and/or taking drugs. For many teenagers, getting involved with drinking alcohol is just a part of growing up. However, it can easily turn into a problem and cause academic failure, drug and tobacco use. It can also lead to few physical consequences like hangovers, death from alcohol poisoning or traffic accidents. Every year, about 4300 people, under the age of 21, die of injuries involving underage drinking. Smoking is another huge factor to which teenagers get peer pressured into. Every day, many teenagers are pressured into smoking cigarettes, and often they start smoking on a regular basis. The pressure begins at an early age, and teenager think it makes them look cooler and older. The pressure on teenager to smoke is everywhere. It is at school, at parties, at home, at sporting events or social gatherings. It isShow MoreRelatedPositive Effect of Peer Pressure962 Words   |  4 PagesCONCEPT PAPER GUIDELINES I. TITLE Positive effect of peer pressure to teens II. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the study As children grow into preteens and then into teenagers, they often become less dependent on the family and more dependent on their peers when it comes to making choices and developing morals and values. Peer pressure can have a positive effect when it encourages teens to develop social skills necessary for adulthood. Unfortunately, negative behaviours tend to travel throughRead MorePositive Effect of Peer Pressure954 Words   |  4 PagesCONCEPT PAPER GUIDELINES I. TITLE Positive effect of peer pressure to teens II. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the study As children grow into preteens and then into teenagers, they often become less dependent on the family and more dependent on their peers when it comes to making choices and developing morals and values. Peer pressure can have a positive effect when it encourages teens to develop social skills necessary for adulthood. Unfortunately, negative behaviours tend to travel throughRead MoreNegative and Positive Effects of Peer Relationships1564 Words   |  7 PagesPossessing a functional or dysfunctional family is of much importance to a healthy development, helping children through peer pressure, acceptance, and the anxiety of belonging. Yet how important is the environment that a child is raised on, this being shared or non-shared? How difficult or easy can peer pressure be? Will peer pressure help or deter a child from being functional. How much do these factors affect development from childhood to adolescence? This paper will explain the different stagesRead MorePeer Pressure Essay69 3 Words   |  3 Pagesgeneration. Peer Pressure. We have all at one stage in our lives, experienced it. We all know what it feels like to be pressured by a peer. Peer pressure today impacts on kids of my generation in a huge aspect. Teenagers feel social pressure in numerous ways such as clothing, music and entertainment choices, to unsafe areas such as drugs, alcohol and smoking. During adolescence, kids emphasize their independence and explore their identity. Yet they still crave the approval of their peers and worryRead MoreAdolescence Peers Essay744 Words   |  3 PagesPeers To most adolescents, how their peers see them can play an important role on their everyday lives. When I look back on my adolescent years, I can recall a lot of enjoyable times with my peers such as talking on telephone till I was tired, going to places like the mall, movies, and out to eat, or just plain hanging out. According to the book, peers are children or adolescents who are about the same age or maturity level. Peers can also provide a source of information about the worldRead MorePeer Presure at School794 Words   |  3 PagesPeer Pressure at School Every human being has an inner feeling of wanting to belong somewhere. Even belonging to one’s family is not enough. Individual will strive to belong to a wider group existing within his or her environment. Consequently, this exposes one to peer pressure. Peer pressure is the influence exerted on an individual by a person or a group to do something or act in a manner that he or she would otherwise not consider doing on his or her own. It has traditionally been associated withRead MorePeer Pressure Affects Academic Performance of Second Year Students1117 Words   |  5 PagesTitle: Peer Pressure Affects Academic Performance of Second Year Students Dependent Variable: Academic performance of second year students Independent Variable: Peer Pressure Objective: To know how academic performance among second year high school students is being affected by peer pressure. Introduction: To be successful in life, one must begin by being successful in school. In high school, we were all told to work hard so that we could get good grades and scores that would getRead MorePeer Pressure : Positive Or Negative?947 Words   |  4 PagesDon’t be peer pressured into being less than you are† (Steve Maraboli). This quote means that negative peer pressure can result in an individual acting out and behaving in a manner that is a downgrade from the person that is true to society. Often time, the community imagines peer pressure as teens influencing one another to experiment with drugs, alcohol, and sexual intercourse. But really all peer pressure is, is the encouragement of changing values and behaviors of an individual. Peer pressure canRead MoreArgumentative Essay On Peer Pressure1532 Words   |  7 Pages Peer Pressure: An Epidemic We all have been young adolescents before and experienced all the things junior high and high school has to offer. Being a teenager is something everyone has or will experience in our life times. Teenagers go through a crucial time in their lives where they really figure out who they are and how to make more adult decisions. Peer pressure has always been a regular part of teenage life. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry states â€Å"Peers play a large roleRead MorePeer Pressure And Its Effects On Adolescents1305 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Peers are important for the development of adolescents. As they continue to mature, adolescents have different targets for intimacy than when they were younger. The time of interaction between adolescents and their parents is lower compared to the time the adolescents spend with their friends and peers. They are even more likely to befriend those of the opposite sex. However, with peers inevitably there is peer pressure. Peer pressure has adopted a negative connotation, especially

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Grapes Of Wrath - Jim Casy Chracter Analysis Essay

John Steinbeck passionately describes a time of unfair poverty, unity, and the human spirit in the classic, The Grapes of Wrath. The novel tells of real, diverse characters who experience growth through turmoil and hardship. Jim Casy- a personal favorite character- is an ex-preacher that meets up with a former worshiper, Tom Joad. Casy continues a relationship with Tom and the rest of the Joads as they embark on a journey to California in the hopes of prosperity and possibly excess. Casy represents how the many situations in life impact the ever-changing souls of human- beings and the search within to discover ones true identity and beliefs. Casy, however, was much more complex than the average individual. His unpredjudiced, unified,†¦show more content†¦This secures a definite parallel to Jesus Christ and not only Jim Casy, but the entire book, The Grapes of Wrath. The rich people, banks, owners, and institutions have taken control of the country and nature, but as the book says, quot;And the association of owners knew that some day the praying would stop. And theres an end.quot; This means that these people will always carry on, one day they will take action, there will be a fight, and quite possibly an end to the misfortune and a reign of prevailing prosperity. Christ once said, quot;When thou makest a dinner or supper, call not...thy rich neighbors...But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind: and thou shalt be blessed.quot; John Steinbeck and Jim Casy along with many other migrants believe in charity, helping others and an end to the insatiable appetite for money and self-indulgence. When Casy is saying grace in chapter eight, he compares himself to Jesus: quot;I been in the hills, thinkin, almost you might say like Jesus wen into the wilderness to think His way out of troubles.quot; Casy was beginning to feel confused, troubled and stressful about his faith, but when he went into the wilderness and rediscovered n ature, he was a new man with a new-found faith. (Eventually Christ was no longer a Jew and strayed from the traditional Hebrew idea of God. Casys beliefs did not precisely follow Christianity.) Like Christ, Casy was jailed and later aroused the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How the Relationship Between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth...

How the Relationship Between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Changes and Develops During the Course of the Play The relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth alters throughout the play. At the beginning of the play Macbeth and Lady Macbeth were very close and loving. Lady Macbeth showed that she was supportive to Macbeth and encouraged him to kill Duncan in order to clear all obstacles that would get in the way of Macbeth becoming King! Macbeth is introduced as a brave soldier who is devoted to his King, while Lady Macbeth is introduced as a kind and loving wife, who underneath is actually a scheming and deceitful woman! At the beginning of the play, Lady Macbeth receives a letter from her husband†¦show more content†¦She manipulated Macbeth and challenged his feelings of guilt, trying to replace them with spiteful feelings. She says: Look like th innocent flower, but be the serpent undert. She tells Macbeth to put on a pleasant face and leave the rest to her. This shows that Lady Macbeth is the dominant character in the relationship at this point in the play. Lady Macbeth ordered her husband around, instructing him on how he should act, and encouraging him to betray his loyal and trusting leader, Duncan. I think one of the main reasons Lady Macbeth tried so hard to persuade Macbeth to kill Duncan was because she wanted the power and glory that came with being Queen, but knew that it could only be gained through Macbeth. In those days, females were seen as the weaker sex, and therefore could not play an important role in society. Macbeths conscience pricks him long before he carries out Duncans murder, and when he starts to have second thoughts about killing him, Lady Macbeth is furious and starts verbally assaulting Macbeths courage and manhood. I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have plucked my nipple from his boneless hums And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you Have done to this. Lady Macbeth said this to prove that if she had promised to do something as Macbeth had done, she would kill theirShow MoreRelatedEssay on James I influence in Shakespeares Writing1519 Words   |  7 PagesAfter the Christian conquest across Europe during the medieval period other beliefs were restricted. This period was very authoritarian but later the Renaissance unlocked opportunities to the imagination and the idea of supernatural started to bloom. Although, the supernatural is sometime mistaken with the gods of certain religions, believing in ghosts and witches was independent from the people chosen religion. The question of the existence of the supernatural, or something bigger than us, in 16thRead MorePlay Macbeth11985 Words   |  48 PagesAt the beginning of the play, Macbeth is a respected general, a devoted husband, and a loyal subject of the king. The first of the witches prophecies bring out his ambitious nature, but he struggles with killing the king. By attacking his manhood, Lady Macbeth convinces him to committ the first of his evil deeds. Macbeths evil deed causes him to suffer from fear and guilt, which leads to even more evil crimes. Then Macbeth becomes paranoid, suffering from hallucinations and sleeplessness. He becomesRead MorePlay Macbeth11979 Words   |  48 PagesAt the beginning of the play, Macbeth is a respected general, a devoted husband, and a loyal subject of the king. The first of the witches prophecies bring out his ambitious nature, but he struggles with killing the king. By attacking his manhood, Lady Macbeth convinces him to committ the first of his evil deeds. Macbeths evil deed causes him to suffer from fear and guilt, which leads to even more evil crimes. Then Macbeth becomes paranoid, suffering from hallucinations and sleeplessness. He becomesRead MoreOrder and Disorder in Macbeth4047 Words   |  17 PagesIn Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Macbeth’s visions and hallucinations play a significant role and con tribute to the development of his character. In the play Macbeth, a man is driven to murder his king and his companions after receiving a fairly ambiguous prophecy told by three witches. Although the witches triggered the series of events that later aid Macbeth’s descent into complete insanity, Macbeth is portrayed from the very beginning as a fierce and violent soldier. As the play goes on, several internalRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare and Macbeth8813 Words   |  36 Pagesdrama, on the other hand, always offers a ray of hope; hence,  Macbeth  ends with the coronation of  Malcolm, a new leader who exhibits all the correct virtues for a king. Macbeth  exhibits elements that reflect the greatest Christian tragedy of all: the Fall of Man. In the Genesis story, it is the weakness of Adam, persuaded by his wife (who has in turn been seduced by the devil) which leads him to the proud assumption that he can play God. But both stories offer room for hope: Christ will comeRead MoreShakespeares Use of the Supernatural in Macbeth Essay example5126 Words   |  21 PagesSupernatural in Macbeth The supernatural is widely used in Macbeth, and covers major sections of it. It is used to generate interest, and to provoke thought and controversy. At the time the play was written, James the 1st was the English monarch. James the 1st was originally James the 4th on the Scottish throne, until there was a union of crowns between England and Scotland in the late 16th century. Shakespeare wrote the play for him, so the play Macbeth is popularlyRead Moreshakespeare influences16068 Words   |  65 Pagesï » ¿ RESEARCH TOPIC An Analytic Review Of Shakespearean Influence On Faulkner s Tragedy RESEARCH QUESTION How Shakespeare tragic patterns influenced on William Faulkner s writings? NAME: SYEDA AMBREEN FATIMA FATHER’S NAME: SYED HASAN AKHTER SEAT NO: 1315793 ENROLMENT NO: 2013/ENG/M.A(LIT)/15681 DATE OF SUBMISSION: 28TH NOV 2013 SUBMITTED TO: MISS SAMREENRead MoreEssay about Ritas Change and her Relationship with Frank3328 Words   |  14 PagesRitas Change and her Relationship with Frank How does Rita’s character change and her relationship with Frank alter during the course of the play? â€Å"Educating Rita† is the story of a married working-class woman, Rita, trying to better and discover herself by attending an open university course. The play follows her as her character and relationship with her tutor, Frank develop and change until she finally passes her exams and they part. Rita completely transforms herself through herRead MorePsychological Anxieties in English Literature Essay1965 Words   |  8 Pagesin the English literature were immensely appreciated by the public. In renaissance period the hero’s in Gorboduc, The Spanish tragedy, Hamlet Macbeth, if analyzed, their tragedy caused by fatal flaw in their character, similarly the hero’s in the modern novel like Ulysses, Maurice, The love song of J. Alfred Prufrock, Mrs Dalloway Portrait of a lady deals with their contemporary issues expressed through stream of consciousness their character’s suppressed and repressed physical and emotionalRead MoreHow to Write a Research Paper11497 Words   |  46 Pagesthe teacher or the course. If you are given a choice of topic, consider the following questions before choosing: a. Is the subject you are considering significant/relevant to the assignment? b. Does the subject interest you? c. Are research materials readily available for the subject? d. Can the subject be presented objectively? 2. Limiting the Subject If the subject you plan to research is too broad, your paper may exceed the assigned length. If you attempt to develop a broad subject

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Human Flourishing And Individuality of The Montara Oil Spill assignmen

Introduction The news of BP deep water spill is still fresh in the memories of the people. The deep water oil spill happened in the Gulf of Mexico. However, a more serious incident also happened in Australia, where the leakage happened for 74 days before the same was controlled. The incident was not as popular as the BP leakage and the response of the media for the incident was muted (AMSA, 2010). The research takes into account the background of the case and the justification for the common good. The role of the stakeholders will also be checked and taken into account. The other issue has been the role of stakeholders. The assignment will take into consideration the resolutions in terms of the Environment, Australian Government perspective, religious aspects, and the benefits. Background of the Case The incident took place on Friday 21 August 2009, and was noted in the West Australia drilling rigs. This happened in the Montara Well were the Oil release was noted. The project has been owned and under operation by PTTEPAA when the incident occurred. This is a Thailand based company under the name, PTTEP. The spillage was 57 nautical miles from the important Cartier Marine reserve. It was also in a close reach of 80 nautical miles from another reef reserve in Ashmore. The problem of Oil spill occurred from the fire that took place in the Well head of Montara (AMSA, 2010). The incidence is significant due to the fact that the Oil spill continued for a period of 74 days before the same was intervened by mud in November 2009 . The estimates from the Thailand Company were that 30000 barrels were spilled in the sea due to the crisis. It was observed that the flow would have been in the region of 1000-1500 in the initial stages while the same might have come down to 400 barrels in a day (AMSA, 2010). Apart from the flow there were spillage of Gas and other condensates. Stakeholders and Perspectives After the oil spill the response plan of Australia Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), and an inquiry for the same was set up. There were several surveillance flights that were conducted so that the root cause of the spill can be gathered. This included the surveillance done by 130 flights that gathered the oil spill data, the information in regards to the problems of the environment was gathered by the flights. The sprays were made from these flights so that the oil spillage can be controlled. Meanwhile calls of independent investigations of the leakage came from Australia Lawyers Alliance apart from some other agencies. The claims have come from the fisherman and the people involved in the fishing business that they suffered massive losses after the oil spill occurred. Studies done on the subject claim that even after the spill has been controlled it is still affecting the coastal communities more than one and half billion Australian dollars per year.A multitude of parties have been affected by the fall outs of the Montara Oil Spill. Such groups who have a direct interest in the causes and the aftermath of the oil spill or the stakeholders, are bound to have varying perceptions of the fundamentals of the issue. This section explains the perspectives of the three major stakeholders in the oil spill towards it the oil company, the Australian government, and the people of West Timor. The Oil Company PTTEP, the oil company responsible for the Montara oil spill, reacted strongly and responsibly to the incident in order to compensate for the damages to the various stakeholders as well as the restore their goodwill. Their initial emergency response comprised of all the 69 people at the West Atlas rig being rescued and transported to Darwin. Additionally, PTTEP did not deny its role in the spill and acted ethically by accepting complete responsibility for the incident. Further, it revolutionized its organizational culture, safety measures and operational patterns under the Montara Action Plan, which was co-created by the company in association with the Federal Government (which also agreed to monitor the implementation of the plan) (PTTEP, 2014). While its immediate attention was primarily directed to resolving issues of shared interests, it soon initiated endeavors to address the competing interests as well. From a long term perspective, PTTEP initiated and funded several environmental research and supervision programme to ensure that the biodiversity of the area does not suffer prolonged damage. Also, their efforts at overhauling the company reaped positive outcomes. The organization was rejuvenated and brought on the right track by updating and prioritizing functions such as safety, security, health and environment, now under direct CEO supervision. Also, newer and safer drilling management systems and teams were developed (PTTEP, 2014). The company also duly paid the $510000 fine as charged by the Darwin Magistrates Court for negligent oilfield practices. When the deed that bound the Federal Government to monitor the company ended, it was independently reviewed and audited with favorable responses that appreciated its pro gression into safer systems at work. However, the companys most significant response to the oil spill was the establishment of the Timor Sea Environmental Research, an international level independent body entrusted with the task of carrying out scientific research on the marine eco systems in the Timor Sea. Consequentially, an exhaustive database of the flora and fauna that thrives in the sea as well as extensive information about habitats and adaptability have resulted (PTTEP, 2014). Through these multipronged responses, the company ensured that the interests of the powerful as well as the local communities are being addressed to facilitate common good and justice for all stakeholders. The Australian Government The Australian government was affected by the spill in two ways. Firstly, the biodiversity and life patterns of its own citizens was threatened by the incident, and hence it was required to act in its role of a regulatory authority (Lendon, 2009). Secondly, the spill also affected Indonesian fishermen, waters and biodiversity and called for action and intervention by the government in its diplomatic capacity. Its immediate response was notifying Indonesia instantly after satellite proof had been obtained. It also partnered with PTTEP to conduct clean up operations using dispersants, booms and skimmers. From a long term perspective, it started to closely observe and monitor the movement of oil patches and initiated the prevention of such spread through daily rescue programs (Lendon, 2009). Additionally, the government transported a jack up drill rig from Batam, Indonesia and placed it near high leakage areas to drill a relief well into the seabed that can absorb the leakage. Finally, it has regulated and monitored the activities of the company in fulfillment of its commitment towards the mitigation of the oil spills aftermath (Australian Government, 2013). The People of West Timor Despite its efforts, the Government has been criticized for a lack of attention to the smaller and less influential parties affected by the oil spill. According to the Australian Lawyers Alliance (2013), the government has not sufficiently compensated or considered the welfare of the people of West Timor and excluded them from being beneficiaries of its response programs. It is believed that in its efforts to sideline public and diplomatic criticism on environmental and international grounds, it has failed to address local problems faced by marine-dependent communities in West Timor. The effects of the oil pollution have resulted in a death toll of 18 in economically backward fishing villages and also ruined their primary source of income (AMSA, 2010). Further, the government has been criticized internationally for not having dispatched any officials to personally visit the Indonesian villages affected (Australian Lawyers Alliance, 2013). From the above analysis, it is clear that in terms of ethical standards, the Australian government has largely failed, especially considering its role of dual responsibility at the national as well as international level. No efforts have been undertaken to ensure greater protection in the future. Besides, the negative consequences of the spill have not been addressed meticulously (Australian Lawyers Alliance, 2013). Finally, the situation of the people in West Timor has remained largely sidelined in the entire response program. Principles of Human Flourishing The principles of human flourishing as provided by the Catholic Society of Teaching, aim to promote the idea that every person is worthy of having adequate access to societal resources in order to be able to live fulfilling and dignified lives (Caritas Australia, 2014). This encapsulates the essence of common good. When the rights of an individual to personal wealth and access to a variety of other resources are balanced equitably with the needs of the deprived sections of the society, common good is attained. The response to Montara oil spill clearly violated the principle of subsidiarity and participation. This principle requires a democratic and direct decision making process whereby the people affected by an issue are given the control to change it. In the case of the spill, the primary affected populations were the fishermen of West Timor, who had little say in the matter and consequently suffered neglect (Mustoe, 2009). Secondly, the principle of solidarity was violated as well. The Australian government acted swiftly to clean its image as well as the waters. However, it did not substantially address the practical and economic problems faced by the fishermen of West Timor. This can be attributed to a lack of compassion for people belonging to another nation and a different social strata of living. Additionally, the third principle of having a preferential option for the poor was completely violated . Neither the PTTEP, nor the Australian government undertook any direct and compensatory measures for the most deprived stakeholder group affected by the spill the economically backward fishermen of West Timor who relied on fishing in the Timor sea to make their livelihood. Their vulnerability was not taken into account or addressed. The principle of economic justice was violated in the response to the oil spill on similar grounds a complete lack of measures such as substitute employments or monetary compensation for the affected fishermen. The principle of stewardship of creation was, however, adequately addressed by the response to the oil spill. The oil company as well as the Australian government, edged on by various national and international NGOs, strived to restore ecological balance and protect the marine biodiversity and habitat for environmental good (Towie, 2009). Finally, it can be said that the response to the oil spill failed to align with the last principle of promotion of peace. Such peace can be possible only by safeguarding of the goods, dignity and freedom of people (Caritas Australia, 2014). In the case of the spill, not only were the primary and all-important resources of the West Timor people destroyed, but also, sufficient efforts or attention were not directed towards their restoration. Common Good Apart from the stakeholders described previously, the spill also affected other stakeholders and jeopardized their welfare. Considering the expansive scope and impact of this incident and the broad spectrum of people that were affected by it, and considering the contradictory interests of the different stakeholders, it becomes evident that the Montara oil spill becomes an issue of common good and justice. From the analysis in the previous section, it is clear that the response to the issue failed to ensure human flourishing and common good, primarily through a continuous neglect of the economic fall outs of the spill with respect to the people of West Timor. Therefore, following a multi pronged strategy of 1) dispatching concerned authorities to meet with the affected people and discuss their problems 2) coordinating with the Indonesian government to carry out compensatory efforts such as skill training, substitute livelihood provision, or monetary assistance 3) keeping a sustained v igil on the Timor sea and oil company activities to safeguard the future of these fishermen can promote the achievement of common good.