Monday, March 9, 2020

Technology Global Issues Essay Example

Technology Global Issues Essay Example Technology Global Issues Essay Technology Global Issues Essay Essay Topic: Global Issues Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Technology Global Issues A stem cell is an undeveloped cell that possesses the potential to become specialized into various types of cells throughout the body. Stem cell technology refers to the acquisition and development of undistinguished human cells into any or most of the 220 ranges of cells that occupy the human body. It is a rapidly emergent field that merges the attempts of cell biologists, clinicians and geneticists and provides hope of valuable treatment for various malignant and non-malignant maladies (Panno, 25).Stem cell procedures and processes are usually applied in the provision of treatments for patients with life threatening illnesses such as lymphoma, blood disorders, and solid tumors and leukemia. The stem cell technology has been considerably applied in three main areas. One of the foremost areas to encounter the use of stem cell technology is the Adult Stem Cell Transplant. In this type of transplant, stem cells have been used in bone marrow transplants, whereby the stem cells in a pati ent’s bone marrow are substituted with healthy stem cells from a matching and healthy donor. The transplant becomes successful when the stem cells migrate into the bone marrow of the patient and start producing novel and healthy leukocytes to substitute the abnormal cells. Another area involves the use of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells (PBSC). Despite a considerable number of blood stem cells residing in the bone marrow, a few of them are also in the bloodstream. Thus, PBSCs can be acquired from blood making it simpler to collect than stem cells in the bone marrow. Stem cells have also been applied in Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant. Conventionally, umbilical cords have been deemed unnecessary. Presently, blood drawn from the umbilical cord has been utilized in the treatment of similar health defects that require PBSCs and bone marrow stem cells (Panno, 67). Stem cell research also holds future possibilities in treatments. For instance, stem cells can be utilized in the testing of new medicines. For instance, new medications can be tested for safety on differentiate cells produced from cell lines such as cancer cell lines which can be used to test latent anti-tumor medicines. Stem cells can also be used in the generation of tissues and cells, which can be utilized for therapies that are cell based. Presently, donated tissues and organs are usually utilized to substitute destroyed or ailing tissue, but the need for organs and tissues that are transplantable offsets the accessible supply. Stem cells intended for differentiation into particular cell types avail the possibility of a restorable supply of substituting tissues and cells to treat ailments such as spinal cord injury, strokes, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, burns and osteoarthritis. For instance, it would be possible to produce healthy c ells in the heart muscle in the laboratory and subsequently transplant the cells in patients suffering from chronic heart disease. Stem cells can also lead to the treatment of baldness. This is because there are stem cells present in the hair follicles. It is believed that the stem cells in the follicles can help treat baldness by activating the progenitor cells and the stem cells existing in the scalp (Panno, 89). Regardless of the innovative and aiding treatments that arise from use of stem cells, ethical problems encompass the mode of treatment. The ethical problems are partly based on the derivation of the stem cells from the body. Usually, adult stem cells are derived or removed from tissues that possess less harmful effects on the person whereas embryonic stem cells are developed from embryos cultured in the laboratory. One of the ethical problems associate with stem cell treatment is its destruction of a fetus or an embryo. Ethically, this portrays the obliteration of a latent human being and clashes with the moral and religious views held in the society. Another chief and important ethical problem that encompasses the stem cell treatment is the combination of cloning technology and embryonic stem cells. This combination leads to the production of an embryo that is a hereditary double of the nucleus’ donor. The ethical problem is primarily based on the creation of an embryo for th erapeutic or research purposes and not for potential life. Moreover, the purpose of cloning is ethically problematic since it is mainly based on the production of tissues for transplantation while the generated embryo is permitted to continue developing leading to the potential birth of a human (Panno, 156-167). A biologically plausible mechanism portrays the relationship between a supposed cause and a result. The mechanism establishes a cause-and-effect relationship between the biological aspect and a specific disease or an unfavorable event. Generally, it is asserted that for a relationship to be deemed causal, the association between the biological aspect and the disease should be biologically consistent (United States, 21). For surely new advances, however, the biological plausibility may be unclear. Irrespective of this, biological plausibility remains relevant in the establishment of causality. Based on the cause-and-effect relationship, disease is assumed as a result generated from the interaction of the environment, the physical and genetic structure of the individual and the disease agent. Diseases resulting from sole causes are habitually so by definition. For instance, the reality that tuberculosis results from the Tubercle Bacillus is a matter of description. The causal basis of the association requires judgment in the case where there is biological implausibility. For instance, biological plausibility is unclear where smoking is asserted to be a direct cause of lung cancer. Hence, it is important to judge causality of lung cancer. Foremost, the supposed cause, smoking, precedes the disease, lung cancer. The incidence of the disease is raised when the person there is exposure to as much as 20 to 30 fold in smokers of 20 or more cigarettes each day. Moreover, varying exposure to smoking alternately leads to varying disease because of the clear relationship between smoking and lung cancer. This is because of the act of smoking which can lead to the introduction of numerous other diseases that are related apart fro smoking. However, there is association with the disease by smoking as indicated by the one of the major cause agents of lung cancer, smoking (United States, 78). Originally, smoking as a causal factor for lung cancer was bitterly contested. However, it has come to be accepted as a causal factor for the disease. Concerning lung cancer, the association is provable across social groups as well as men and women. The effect, lung cancer by smoking is partly understood since the tar in the cigarettes comprises vital carcinogens. Manipulating the exposure level does affect experience of the disease because lessening cigarette consumption reduces risk of the effect. Coaxing and encouraging individuals to take part in smoking is unethical since it increases the susceptibility to gaining lung cancer. Additionally, tobacco, which is one of the main ingredients in animals, is carcinogenic and can therefore affect human beings as well as animals negatively. Panno, Joseph. Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversy. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2005. Print. United States. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: a Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, 2010. Print.